Программа по формированию навыков безопасного поведения на дорогах и улицах «Добрая дорога детства» 2





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CULTURE CORNER


The problem of gravitation

The reason for choosing Skill Developing Lesson is to practice reading skills and to develop communicative skills on the base of the text read. The text was chosen according to the level of the students- Pre-Intermediate, 9 Form. The topic « The problem of gravitation» will be interesting for teenagers.

Задачи: развитие умений прогнозирования содержания текста по иллюстрациям и невербальным опорам, развитие умений ознакомительного и поискового чтения, развитие социокультурной компетенции. Развитие умений устной речи. Рефлексия освоенного материала.

1.

T-Look at the pictures and read the title of the article.

What do you expect to read about? Read the first sentence in each paragraph.

Possible answer: I think the title of the text relates to the famous scientist Isaac Newton and the law of gravitation.

T-.What is your association with the word “Gravitation”?


S-It’s the force that causes objects to move towards each other

T-Please, think of three things you would like to ask about him. Let’s write them down.

SS read the biography and check if the questions were answered.

Portrait of I Newton



Dispersive prism



Isaac Newton was born in 1642. His father died before his son’s birth. When Newton was fifteen his uncle removed him from school, planning to make a farmer of him. However, finding that he made a poor farmer the uncle sent him back to school and then to the University of Cambridge, where later on he lectured on mathematics for more than 30 years. Newton soon distinguished himself in mathematics, having made a number of important contributions to that science by the time he was twenty-one.

In 1665 the great plague broke out in England and Cambridge closed its doors.

Newton was obliged to return home, and it was there in the following year that observing the fall of an apple from a tree, he came to the conclusion that the force that caused the apple to fall, namely, the force of gravity. He wanted to know if gravity was the cause of the motion of the moon. However, his calculations showed that it was not. What Newton did not know was that the accepted figure for the distance from the earth to the moon was wrong. That’s why he put the problem aside.

Six years passed by. In 1672 more accurate calculations were made making it possible to establish the true size of the earth. From these it was possible to establish the true distance to the moon. Newton’s interest in the subject of gravitation being revived, he started a new set of calculations, devoting all his time to the subject for two years.

His interest was so great that he forgot everything. Sitting half dressed on his bed he remained there in his thought all day long. He was eating only when food was brought to him and not noticing, what he was eating.

The first part of his «Principia»has been finished, but he put off publishing it. Instead, he locked it in his desk having decided to keep it there until his death.

However, other scientists began to take interest in the subject of gravitation. Astronomers, physicists and others talked about it at their meetings in London. Wren, the famous architect, offered a prize to a scientist who could prove why the path of a planet must be an ellipse. But nobody could do it. In 1684 Helly, the astronomer, visiting Newton at Cambridge asked him if he could solve the problem. Newton said he had already got the answer. And so the great «Principia»was given to the world. Newton having laid down in it the law of universal gravitation. This states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other with a force, which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Newton then proceeded to show that the laws of the planets were the natural results of universal gravitation. He proved mathematically that the planets had to move just as they did. He showed further how the mass of the sun could be calculated from the speed and distance of any planet.

It is difficult for us to realize how important Newton’s work was. The publication of his «Principia» has been compared to a sunrise. But he himself was always modest.

Newton wrote «:I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seemed to have been only like a boy playing on the sea- shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whist the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me»

2.

Read again and mark the sentences as T (True), F (False), or Ns (Not stated)

1.Newton soon distinguished himself in mathematics, having made a number of important contributions to that science.

2.Newton refused to take holy orders in the Church of England.

3.Newton became president of the Royal Society

4.The great «Principia» was written by Helly.

5.The mass of the sun could be calculated from the speed and distance of any planet.

Key: 1-T, 2-Ns, 3-Ns, 4-F, 5-T.

3.

Match the words in bold to their definition Explain the underlined words. Check in your dictionary


1. distinguish, 2 plague, 3 contribution, 4 conclusion, 5. gravity, 6 accept, 7 calculation, 8- accurate, 9 establish, 10- universal,11.particle


a)an extremely small piece of matter

b)something that you do that helps to achieve something or to make it successful

c)something you decide is true after thinking about it carefully and looking at all the evidence

d)correct or true in every detail

e)the force that makes something fall to the ground

f)to recognize that something is true, fair or right

g)a judgment about what is likely to happen, based on available information

h)an idea or feature that exists everywhere

i)to do something very well so that people notice and respect you

j)to discover, prove or decide that something is true

k)a disease that spreads quickly, causing a high fever, and ends in death



Key:1-i,2-k,3-b,4-c,5-e,6-f,7-g,8-d,9-j,10-h,11-a.

4.Activity «Gravitation- Word Search Puzzle»


This simple word search activity will help you learn and practise English vocabulary connected with the law of gravitation

All the words go across or down. There are no diagonal or backwards words


C

O

N

C

L

U

S

I

O

N

C

D

O

D

I

S

T

I

G

U

I

S

H

O

N

L

F

N

G

R

A

V

I

T

Y

A

T

G

I

R

A

P

L

A

G

U

E

C

R

C

A

C

C

U

R

A

T

E

S

C

I

T

R

F

O

X

D

F

F

D

H

E

B

E

S

T

A

B

L

I

S

H

R

P

U

R

E

P

A

R

T

I

C

L

E

T

T

U

N

I

V

E

R

S

A

L

K

A

I

C

S

G

P

R

L

I

O

N

R

T

O

G

R

A

V

I

T

A

T

I

O

N

N

T

Z

I

N

C

R

E

D

I

B

L

E

C

A

L

C

U

L

A

T

I

O

N

1. distinguish

2. plague

3 contribution

4 conclusion

5. gravity

6 accept

7. calculation

9. accurate

10.establish

11..gravitation

12.universal

13.particle
5.Questions answering

Students answer the questions in group of 4

Make notes while answering these questions
1.When was Isaac Newton born?

2.What happened at the age of 15?

3.What subject was the most interesting for Isaac Newton?

4. In 1665 the University of Cambridge was closed. Why?

5. What conclusion did Isaac Newton

come to, while observing the fall of the apple?

6. What was the name of this force?

7.Why did Isaac Newton

put the problem aside?

8. What calculations were made in 1672?

9.It was possible to establish the true size of the earth. Why?

10 Why did Isaac Newton

start a new set of calculations?

11.What book has been finished?

12What did Isaac Newton

do with Principia?

13.Why did the scientists begin to take interest in the subject of gravitation?

14.Who could solve the problem?

15. Why could the problem be solved?

16What does the law state?

17.What did Isaac Newton

prove mathematically?

18.What has been compared to a sunrise?

19. What did Isaac Newton write about himself?

20.Where was he buried?
6.Production stage

Use your notes to tell your partner about Sir Isaac Newton and his investigations

Discussion


What are scientists and researchers eager to do?

What problems do people face as technologies advance?

Why are people getting more and more concerned about the future of our planet?




7.Total physical response(TPR)


.Read the title of the song and the words (phrases in the list): Technological breakdown, fear of violence,

poison, the roads jam.

.What is the song about? Listen ,read and check

Chris Rea «Road to Hell»


Well I’m standing by the river

But the water doesn’t flow

It boils with every poison

You can think of

And I’m underneath the streetlight

But the light of joy I know

Scared beyond belief

Way down in the shadows

And the perverted fear of violence

Chokes the smile on every face

And common sense is ringing

Out the hell

This aren’t no

Technological breakdown

Oh, no this is the road to the hell
And all the roads jam up with credit

And there’s nothing you can do

It’s all just bits of paper

Flying away from you

Oh look out world, take a good look

What comes down here?

You must learn this lesson fast

And learn it well.
This aren’t no upwardly mobile freeway

Oh no, this is the road

This is the road to hell.
What does the singer worry about?

What problems are mentioned in the song?

Discuss, giving reasons.

Words of Wisdom

Education is the movement from darkness to light

(Allan Bloom, US philosopher)

8.Test


World famous inventors and scientists


Match the names of the inventors with their inventions

1.Alexander Fleming

2.Michael Faraday

3.Thomas Alva Edison

4.Albert Einstein

5.Lord Rutherford

6.Isaac Newton

a)developed the light bulb and a way of sending electricity

b)formed the theory of Relativity

c)investigated the chemistry of radioactive substances

d)discovered magneto-electricity

e)discovered penicillin

d)discovered the laws of universal gravitation

Key 1-e, 2- d, 3-a, 4-b,5-c.6-d
Portfolio

Find out information about an inventor from your country. Write name of person, what he (she) was, what he (she) invented and when. Use your notes to write a short article about him (her) for the school magazine (40-60 words).

Литература

1.Spotlight –students book Ваулина Ю.Е., Эванс В., Дули Дж, Подоляко О.Е.,. – Учебно-методический комплект (УМК)«Английский в фокусе»- для 9 класса общеобразовательных учреждений- Москва. Просвещение 2011.

2.Спецификация контрольно-измерительных материалов (КИМ) для проведения в 2013 году ГИА по иностранному языку – Федеральный институт педагогических измерений (ФИПИ)

3.Кодификатор элементов содержания и требований к уровню подготовки обучающихся, для проведения в 2013 году ГИА по английскому языку ФИПИ

4.Юнева С.А.- Открывая мир с английским языком – Готовимся к ЕГЭ Москва 2012 Интеллект-Центр

5. Конышева А.В. Организация классных часов на английском языке. КАРО Санкт-Петербург 2005.

6 Использование интернет ресурсов

7.Журина Т.Ю.Английский язык Тематический сборник для подготовки к устному экзамену по английскому языку Издательство Дрофа М- 2008

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